Sunday, August 23, 2020

The Dos and Donts of Writing a Dissertation Conclusion

The Dos and Donts of Writing a Dissertation Conclusion The Dos and Don’ts of Writing a Dissertation Conclusion Following quite a while of difficult work, committed research and restless evenings, you’re at last near completing your exposition. You’ve evaluated the writing, assembled and examined information, and considered the outcomes. All around done. Be that as it may, what does everything mean? This is the place the end gets essential, as it permits you to sum up your work and its essentialness. Its in this manner significant that the end to your exposition is clear, brief and convincing. Here are a couple â€Å"dos† and â€Å"don’ts† to remember when composing your decision! DO†¦ 1. Sum up Your Argument A decent end will quickly repeat your theory, key discoveries and the ramifications of your exploration. This will assist the peruser with following your contention all in all, uniting different components raised during the conversation. 2. Put Your Work in Context The finish of your paper is a decent spot to repeat the centrality of your work. This may incorporate how it adds to existing information in your field or its significance outside of the scholarly world. 3. Survey Limitations No investigation is great, not even yours! Sorry to break the terrible news! On the in addition to side, you can talk about the constraints of your work toward the finish of your exposition. Doing this will show your comprehension of the exploration procedure. Issues you might need to consider incorporate example size and time requirements. 4. Distinguish Implications for Future Research Most exposition ends incorporate recommendations for how your work could educate future research. This could be your very own refinement examination, however it may likewise be a radical new thought recommended by your outcomes! DON’T†¦ 1. Present New Material Despite the fact that it’s fine to offer an assessment or reflection toward the finish of your thesis, presenting new contentions or proof now is illegal. On the off chance that something is sufficiently significant to remember for the end, it ought to be a piece of the primary body of your paper. 2. Compose Too Much Your decision ought to incorporate a rundown of what goes before it, however it isn’t important to return over everything inside and out. Attempt to make this section genuinely smart, relating what you have just perused in an effectively edible manner. 3. Keep Your Reader in Suspense In contrast to a scene of Game of Thrones, you can’t finish your thesis on a cliffhanger! In your examination, you will have embarked to respond to specific inquiries. Ensure that you address these unequivocally in your decision with the goal that nothing is disregarded. In the event that you follow these tips you ought to ideally discover composing that allimportant closing section an a lot less complex procedure. In any case, in the event that you need any more help, the specialists at Proofed will be glad to investigate your work!

Friday, August 21, 2020

Comparing and Contrasting Low-Carbohydrate and Low-Fat Diets Essay

Looking into Low-Carbohydrate and Low-Fat Diets The low-sugar diet and the low-fat eating regimen adopt two distinct strategies to accomplish a similar objective of weight reduction. The principal distinction between the two weight control plans is found in the correlation of their healthful proposals. Nourishing proposals are the establishment of the two eating regimens, in spite of the fact that their perspectives on the job starches, proteins, and fats should play contrasts extraordinarily. Health food nuts are informed that following these dietary proposals will advance weight reduction. The measure of weight reduction accomplished with either diet vacillates after some time and at long last, the outcomes for the two eating regimens are comparative. Low-sugar eats less suggest eating nourishments high in fat and protein while restricting starches so as to advance weight reduction. Nourishments high in fat and protein are the principle wellspring of calories during the main period of weight reduction on the Atkins diet. It is suggested that fat make up about 60% of calories ingested and protein make up 35% of calories ingested. The Atkins diet doesn't limit calorie admission and they suggest that you eat until you are full. Scientists accept that gorging is maintained a strategic distance from because of the enduring satiety weight watchers get from eating a lot of protein. The Atkins diet permits 5% of calories to be from sugars, in a perfect world just from non-bland vegetables. The rationale behind the limitation of starches is that without them present in the blood, the body is bound to use put away fat for vitality. In contrast to numerous different eating regimens, limitations are not put on the sort of fat and protein to b e expended; health food nuts can decide for themselves whether to stay with lean meats and unsaturated fats or to pick greasy... ...le to shed pounds more rapidly than those calorie counters eating bunches of sugars on the low-fat eating regimen. Low-sugar and low-fat eating regimens expect adherence to totally different wholesome proposals while eventually accomplishing comparative weight reduction results. Low-starch eats less carbs, for example, Atkins, urge health food nuts to eat things high in protein and fat, though the low-fat eating regimen expects weight watchers to eat generally sugars while restricting protein and fat admission. Specialists have discovered that both of these eating regimens help to advance weight reduction momentary utilizing severe healthful proposals, however that neither of them appear to have the option to assist calorie counters with keeping up their lower weight long haul. Sources: Astrup, Arne, Thomas Meinert Larsen, Angela Harper. â€Å"Atkins and other Low-Carbohydrate Diets: Hoax or an Effective Tool for Weight Loss?† 4 Sept.2004

Monday, July 6, 2020

Workplace Ethics - Starbucks Case Study - Free Essay Example

1.0 Introduction What is workplace ethics? Workplace ethics is a group of moral principles, standards of behavior, or set of values regarding proper conduct in the workplace. Workplace ethics are most often related in decision making processes because it is the most important responsibilities that we place on the leaders of organization is upholding the highest standards of ethical behavior. Ethics at workplace refer to choosing the option that is determined to be the moral or right choice. Starbucks is one of the worldà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s most ethical companies. Starbucks makes conscious efforts to be a responsible company and conduct business in an ethical manner. In its business, Starbucks was proud of it ethical ways in doing their business. They are through community, sourcing, environment, diversity and wellness. Starbucks has openly display its commitment to being socially responsible and they want their customers to know exactly how they doing. In Starbucks, Business Ethics and Compliance is a program that supports their mission which is à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“To inspire and nurture the human spirit à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" one person, one cup and one neighborhood at a time.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  It helps to protect their culture and their reputation by providing resources that help partners make ethical decisions at work. Starbucks has makes conscious efforts to fulfill its companyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s mission. The majority of reports received by Business Ethics and Compliance involve employee relations issue that provides alternative reporting mechanisms as part of a comprehensive ethics and compliance program. Starbucks believes that conducting business ethically and striving to do the right thing are vital to their success. The program develops and distributes awareness materials, including the Standard of Business Conduct. In social responsibility, the Standard of Business Conduct is a statement of some of the companyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s expectations of how they conduct Starbucks business, consistent with their mission and core value. In workplace, Starbucks has emphasis in three sectors of their employees. First, are global human rights, their commitment to basic human rights as a core component of the way they do business and how they engage with their partners. Second is equal employment opportunity, their non-discrimination policy help the large number of their employees have a steady working situation. Third is health care, their support for he althcare reform that allows them to continue to offer affordable coverage to our partners. 3.0 Case Study Starbucks lead by its CEO Howard Schultz is an international coffeehouse chain based in Seattle, Washington, United States. It is the largest coffeehouse company in the world with 16120 stores in 49 countries. Products of Starbucks include drip brewed coffee, espresso-based hot drinks, other hot and cold drinks, snacks and items such as mugs and coffee beans. Many products are specific to the location of the stores. Starbucks Italian styles coffee, espresso beverages, teas and confectionaries had made it one of the worldà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s biggest specialty coffee chain. With the intention of communicating to employees and customers of the values and principles that the company upholds, Starbucks Coffee Company has outlined its mission statements; à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“To inspire and nurture the human spirit à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" one person, one cup, and one neighborhood at a ti meà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  (à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Our Starbucks Missionà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  ,n.d ) . Even though Starbucks has a unique style of combining both Mission Statement and Vision Statement ( Garfieldml, 2012) its meaning is clear and concise. Viewing the statement in ethical perspective relating to its workplace it can be broken down into 4 key principles: Ethical sourcing of coffee à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" meaning a holistic approach to ethically source the highest quality coffee carefully blending, roasting and packing fresh. Our partner where Starbucks refer to its employees will be treated with respect and dignity with safeguarded by health coverage. Ethical environment stewardship à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" are committed to the conservation of environmental resources. 3.1 Critical and Main Issues Starbucks commitment to ethical practices in the workplace environment is reflected in its setting up of a Standard of Conducts for its partners. The main ethical issues addressed in the code of co nduct can be broadly categorise as commitment of partners to provide quality service to customers, conducive workplace environment for the partners and emphasis on integrity and fairness on all dealings. Commitment to provide quality service Partners should be committed not to harass or discriminate against customers, protect customersà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ health and safety by following all proper procedure relating to storage, handling, preparation and providing service for Starbucks products. Conducive working environment Consistent with global human rights standard, Starbucks promote equal opportunity in its hiring and promotion practices make decision solely on job related criteria. Employment of partners under age of 18 will take into consideration legal requirement of age, hour task and ensure the partnersà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ education, health, safety and mental or physical development is not affected. Starbucks partners should respect each otherà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s dignity. All partners are entitled to work in an environment that is free of harassment, bullying or discrimination. Officers are assigned to enforce the rules and practices pertaining to workplace health, safety and security to safeguard the partners. Starbucks is committed to comply with laws and regulation applicable to wages. It emphasizes that work performed should be compensated accordingly. Thus partners compensated on basis of hours must report accurately (Ali., Haris, Arslan, Jan., Asad-ud, Bashir., Sufwan, Usman, Ali , n.d). Starbuck College Achiever Plan motivates all benefits eligible partners to complete a bachelor degree with full tuition reimbursement through Arizona University top-ranked degree programs, delivered online (à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Working At Starbucks n.d ). Emphasis on integrity and fairness on all dealings Partners must be committed to work fairly and honestly with government official and are not permitted to influence outcome by exchanging bribes. Partners must be truthful and straightforward in their dealing with government so as to meet high ethical and legal standard. Sales practice and advertising must compete on merit of product and services and communication with customers must be accurate and truthful. Partners committed to fair and open competition and must not use unethical means to eliminate competitors or control market price. Partners are prohibited from offering, giving, soliciting or recovering any form of bribe or inducement. Partners must ensure accuracy and integrity of Starbucks corporate reports and honest in disclosure of information to the authority. 3.2 Starbucks Application of Relevant Organizational Behaviour Principles and Concepts To monitor and enforce the ethical conduct of its partners at the workplace Starbucks had developed ass et of Standard of Business Conduct which is a resource distributed to all partners to help them make appropriate decision at work. To further help the partners facing with ethical problems Starbucks had set up a Business Ethics and Compliance unit headed by a partner resource. Considering partners who are not comfortable facing an officer to report unethical practices, Starbucks Ethics and Compliance Helpline is an avenue to report issues through free phone call. This facility operates 24 hours every day. Ethics And Compliance Webline is another way for partners to ask for guidance which can be submitted anonymously and treated in confidential manner. The above enforcement measures reflect Starbucks attempt to promote ethical behaviour at the workplace by applying the concept of motivation by rewarding partners through fair wages and benefits, interpersonal communication with the resource partner of the Business Ethics and Compliance to assist in preventing and resolving problem and the most important is through setting up a structure standard code of behaviour to modify the behaviour of its partners. All these efforts had resulted in the company being awarded one of the most ethical companies by Ethisphere for the year 2007 to 2012 Allegra strategies had also voted Starbucks as the à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Most Ethical Company , European Coffee Industry for the year 200 to 2011 (Ali n.d). 3.3 Criticizes or Comments First and foremost, we would like to have some comments on the critical issues of Starbucks identified by us in our study. Those issues found by us are the commitment of Starbucks to provide quality service to customers, the providing of a conducive working environment for employees and the emphasis on integrity and fairness on all dealings in the company. It is very important for a company to have commitment to provide quality service to customers. This is because it will increase the satisfaction of customers towards the company. The q uality service provided will act as Starbucksà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s competitive advantage to create loyal customers. Starbucksà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s reputation can also be enhanced through the spreading of news about the good service provided by the company through blogs and social media. This will attract more customers and increase the revenue of Starbucks. A working environment which is conducive is a key element to the performance of the employees and also is one of the individual rights for the employees. The work environment creates behavioural patterns in human development and has both physical and psychological influences on employees in the company. A harmonized and comfortable environment will increase the productivity and job satisfaction of employees. When the employees are in a peaceful environment without any disturbance or unethical problems created by others in the company, they can be more focused in their work and put more effort in it as well as have a better perform ance. The emphasis on integrity and fairness on all dealings by Starbucks is a key factor to support the ethical principles which are individual rights and distributive justice. Managers that are being fair and integral can avoid conflicts happen between employees and a peaceful as well as friendly working environment will be created in the company. This will also enhance employees trust on Starbucks and improve their loyalty to the company. In conclusion, we have positive comments on the main issues in Starbucks and they are quite important to support the ethical principles. 4.0 Recommendations After studying about the topic that we chose that is ethics at workplace, we found that there are many ethical practices practised by employers as well as employees in Starbucks which is the company that we chose. We have some suggestions on how they can further improve practising ethics in Starbucks. First of all, we suggest Starbucks to use ethical screening for job applican ts during interview. Ethical screening is the process of checking these job applicants against certain moral standards and removing those who do not conform. This can be done by checking the resumes of those applicants which contain the behavioural information that reflects the attitude of the applicants. The interviewers should also interview them about how they managed the ethical issues faced by them at their previous workplace and how they are going to solve the ethical problems cases when they face them in the future. Besides, they should also make sure the applicants share the same ethical values with the company and will maintain them on the job. This can prevent one unethical employee to have a bad influence on others in the company that may ruin the good image of an ethical company. Moreover, Starbucks can expose new employees to the companyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s code of ethics, code of conducts and ethical decision making process during the orientation to improve the ethic s in the company. The companyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s codes of ethics and conducts act as its conscience and provide a common ethical reference point for employees. By reviewing these conducts, employees will know about what they should do and what they should not do in the company. They also know whether the issues appear in the future are considered ethical or not ethical according to the companyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s code of ethics and code of conducts and solve it with the best and necessary solution. Furthermore, Starbucks can improve ethics in the company by providing ethics training workshops for all employees annually to supplement ethics codes. The managers that organise these training workshops should provide some real cases with ethical violations of Starbucksà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ ethics code and let them think carefully and discuss among themselves about what they should do for those scenarios. After that, the managers should teach them the correct and best solutions to solve th ese kinds of ethical problems. Through these workshops, the employees will know what to do when they face these kinds of ethical issues in the future and the relationship between employees will also be enhanced through the interaction in the workshop as well as build trust between each other. We also recommend Starbucks to strengthen the ethics which are individual rights and distributive justice of the work unit by rewarding those employees with ethical behaviours equally and punish those with unethical behaviours through work goals and performance appraisals. The managers should praise those employees that achieve the goals in an ethical way or even give them a certificate for being an ethical employee to encourage them. This will also act as a motivation for other employees. At the same time, they should give the same punishment to those employees with unethical behaviour by giving them a warning letter so that they will not do it again in the future. This can also act as an e xample for other employees so that they will not make the same mistake as these unethical employees. By doing this can avoid developing moral confusion in the company. The next suggestion for Starbucks is the managers or the direct supervisors of the employees should model appropriate behaviours in themselves as they are actually the most important ethics reference point for the employees. Ethical behaviours in a company start at top management because the employees tend to follow the behaviour and action of their managers towards an ethical issue. It has a greater influence on employees compared to the stated policies of the company. Therefore, the words and actions of the managers should always be aligned with the companyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s code of ethics and code of conducts. They should act with integrity all the time in order to maintain an ethical workplace. In conclusion, there are many other ways that Starbucks can further improve ethics in the company other than what we suggest here. Improving ethics at workplace is very important in order to be a famous company with good image and quality as well as employees and employers can work together harmoniously without creating any unethical issues on behalf of the company and the customers. 5.0 Conclusion Starbucks is one of the most ethical companies in the world. Starbucks was proud of it ethical ways such as community, sourcing, environment, diversity and wellness in doing their business. It has openly display its commitment to being social responsibility. The program of Business Ethics and Compliance is to support their mission and help to protect their culture and reputation. Starbucks has emphasis their employees into three sectors which is global human rights, equal employment opportunity and health care. In Starbucks, they are using three principles in workplace ethics. First is utilitarianism, it can divide into two types which are act-utilitarianism and rule-utilitarianism. Second i s distributive justice who means sharing of the benefits and burdens of our lives among people. Third are rights, rights played a central role in ethics and it is important to ensure that the freedom and well-being of each individual will be protected when others threaten that freedom or well-being. There are 3 key principles in Starbucks. (1) Ethical sourcing of coffee, (2) Our partner and (3) Ethical environmental resources. The main ethical issues addressed in Starbucksà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s code of conduct for its partners can be categories as commitment of partners to provide quality service to customers, create a workplace environment which is conducive for the partners and emphasis on integrity and fairness on all dealings. After study, we found that there are many ethical practices practiced by employers as well as employees in Starbucks. Starbucks should use ethical screening for job applicants during interview. Starbucks also can expose new employees to the companyà ¢Ã ¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s code of ethics, code of conducts and ethical decision making process during the orientation to improve the ethics in the company. Besides that, Starbucks can improve ethics in the company by providing ethics training workshops for all employees annually to supplement ethics codes. Moreover, Starbucks also need to strengthen the ethics which are individual rights and distributive justice of the work unit by rewarding those employees with ethical behaviours equally and punish those with unethical behaviours through work goals and performance appraisals. Last but not lease, Starbucks should model appropriate behaviours in themselves as they are actually the most important ethics reference point for the employees.

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

A Hero Is No Braver Than An Ordinary Man - 1387 Words

Ralph Waldo Emerson once said, â€Å"A hero is no braver than an ordinary man, but he is braver five minutes longer.† Yet, if you ask anyone else, he will likely give you a completely different definition of heroism. Heroism is an inconsistent social construct that all may interpret to suit their own wants and beliefs. My personal definition of a hero comes not from the virtues of man, but the flaws. While heroes today are often seen as perfect individuals with a single flaw in order to make them â€Å"relatable,† real heroes are much more complex. Someone who is heroic may need their own, special opportunity to be heroic just because â€Å"random acts of kindness† simply do not exist in day-to-day life, but heroes do. A hero’s influence does not have to be widespread, nor does it have to be deep-seated in our modern culture. However, the main trait that prevents everybody from being a hero is the ability to act on one’s dreams and follow through on one’s commitments. Simply put, it takes perseverance and tenacity in order to reach for one’s dreams and achieve one’s goals. A hero must also have the good sense and intelligence it takes in order to be able to overcome one’s own imperfections or weaknesses. A man who possessed the wherewithal to achieve his goals and more was Nikola Tesla. Tesla was born in Smiljan, Croatia, on July 10, 1856. His true academic career began in college, where he studied at both the Polytechnic School at Graz, as well as the University of Prague. While he wasShow MoreRelatedLeiningen vs. the Ants Essay903 Words   |  4 PagesA hero is â€Å"one that shows great courage† according to Webster’s Dictionary. In Leiningen versus the Ants by Carl Stephenson, the protagonist Leiningen can be considered a hero. Not only does he risk his life to save his peon workers and farm, but he is respected by all in every way, shape, and form. 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Noble qualities show what he will fight for what they believe in no matter the cost or the benefits. A true hero fights for the good in the world and what they believe in their heart. In the epic poem BeowulfRead MoreAchilles: A Classical Hero Essay example1091 Words   |  5 PagesAcross the world, ordinary people find heroes that they aspire to imitate. Comic books portray heroes as super strong men in spandex suits, and although a three-year-old child might aspire to be superman, more mature audiences hopefully find more realistic figures to idolize. Take Barack Obama, the President of the United States; he worked his entire life to attain the highest position in our government, President. Obama was not born with a silver spoon in his mouth but to a single mother in Hawaii

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Global Warming The Kyoto Protocol - 1183 Words

Introduction According to the American Meteorological Society, there is a 90 percent probability that the global temperature will increase between 3.5 to 7.4 â„Æ' by 2100 [1]. This increase in global warming could trigger widespread catastrophes such as rising sea levels and famine. International cooperation is crucial because there is not a single country that accounts for 26% of global emissions, and mitigation will require more than 15 countries in order to account for at least 75% of emissions [2]. Also, some countries may free ride other countries’ efforts and gain a competitive advantage because they will continue maintaining their current carbon footprint [2]. Thus, international cooperation will also satisfy a country’s political and economical concerns. In response to the threat climate change poses, the Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty adopted by the UNFCC in the year 1997, which entered into force in 2005 [3]. 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I will argue that while none of the theories precisely covers the entirety of the issue, each provides helpful analysis falls short of clarifying the entire climate change picture. Can states cooperate effectively through the structure of the Kyoto protocol to solve an international problem of global warmingRead MoreKyoto Protocol And Global Warming1173 Words   |  5 PagesIn December 1997, Kyoto protocol was signed to address global warming specifically. Global warming is the â€Å"gradual increase in the average temperature of the Earth s atmosphere and its oceans due to green house gases emissions.†(NRDC, 2005) In the past 100 years, the rate of global warming is unprecedented. In fact, global warming has become one of the most challenging environmental problems in the 21st century. 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Thus the Kyoto planRead MoreGlobal Warming And Climate Change1339 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction Environmental Problem Kyoto was created in 1997 during the Third Conference of the Parties of the UNFCCC with the objective to globally reduce GHG emissions and ultimately address climate change (United Nations, 1997). This international agreement is based on the premise that global warming is mostly due to GHG emissions and those emissions are undeniably anthropogenic (United Nations, 1997). International Cooperation Because the atmosphere is a public good, individual countries haveRead MoreKyoto Protocol And Its Effect On The Earth s Natural Cycles999 Words   |  4 Pages20th century, global changes were measurable. This marked the beginning of the â€Å"Anthropocene†, and era where human activity became a force affecting the Earth’s natural cycles. One of these changes is a global planetary warming, causing more frequent droughts or heavy rains depending on the locations, ice cap melting at the Earth’s poles and rising sea levels, triggered by the emission of massive amounts of man-made greenhouse gases, mostly carbon dioxide (Holland 2015). This warming impacts everyone

Emergence of Critical and Cultural Theories free essay sample

Culture : the learned behavior of members of a given social group. Cultural studies: Focus use of media to create forms of culture that structure everyday life. Political economy theories: Focus on social elites use of economic power to exploit media institutions. 2 There are microscopic interpretive theories that focus on how individuals and social groups use media to create and foster forms of culture that structure everyday life. These theories are referred to as cultural studies theories. There are macroscopic structural theories that focus on how social elites use their economic power to gain ontrol over and 3 Cultural Theory: Theories openly espousing certain values and using these values to evaluate and criticize the status quo providing alternate ways of interpreting the social role of mass media. Those who develop critical theories seek to initiate social change that will implement their values. Political economy theories are inherently critical but some cultural studies 4 Critical theories often provides complex explanations for this tendency of media to consistently do so. We will write a custom essay sample on Emergence of Critical and Cultural Theories or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page E. g: some critical theorists identify constraints on media practitioners that limit their ability to challenge established authority. They charge that few incentives exist to encourage media professionals to overcome these constraints and that media 5 Critical theory often analyzes specific social institutions, probing the extent to which valued objects are sought and achieved. Mass Media and the mass culture have been linked to a variety of social problems, they are criticized for aggravating or preventing problems from being identified or addressed. A common theme in critical theories of media is that content production is so constrained 6 Consider for example, the last time you read news about members of a social ovement that strongly challenged the status quo? Why were the college students who protested against the Communist Chinese government in Tiananmen Square heroes of democracy and those in American anti-war hippies and radicals? Stories about movements imply problems with 7 controntation. Movement leaders demand coverage ot their complaints and they stage demonstrations designed to draw public attention to their concerns. Elites seek to minimize coverage or to exercise spin control so that the coverage favors their position. How do Journalists handle this? How should they handle it? Existing research indicates that this coverage almost always degenerates movements and supports elites. 8 Critical theory: Strengths: 1. Is politically based, actionoriented. 2. Uses theory and research to plan change in the real world. 3. Asks big, important questions about media control and ownership. 9 Weaknesses: 3. When subjected to scientific verification, often employs innovative but controversial research methods. 0 Rise of Cultural Theories in Europe: Despite its long life in American Social Science, the Limited Effects Paradigm never enjoyed great popularity in europe. European social research has instead been characterized by what U. S. Observers regard as grand social theories. Grand Social Theory: Highly ambitious, 1 1 In Europe, the development of grand social theory remained a central concern in the social s ciences and humanities. Mass society theory gave way to a succession of alternate ideas. Some were limited to specific nations and others spread across many countries. Some of the most widely accepted have been based on the writings of Karl Marx. Marxist theory influenced even the theories that were created in reaction against it. Marxist ideas formed a foundation or touch stone for most postworld War II european social theory and research. 12 Cold War politics colored much of the U. S. Response to it. Ironically, in the 1970s and 1980s, at the very time that Marxist failed as a practical guide for politics and economics in Eastern Europe, grand social theories based on Marxist thought were gaining increasing acceptance in Western Europe. 3 MARXIST THEORY: Marxist Theory: Theory arguing that the hierarchical class system is at the root of all social problems and must be ended by a revolution of the proletariat. Karl Marx developed this theory in the latter part of the nineteenth century during one of the most volatile periods of social change in Europe. In some respects, his theory is yet another version ot mass society theory- but witn several ve ry important alterations and additions. 14 He identified industrialization and urbanization as problems but argued that these changes were not inherently bad. Instead, he blamed ruthless robber baron capitalists for exacerbating social problems because they maximized personal profits by exploiting workers. Marx argued that the hierarchical class system was the root of ll social problems and must be ended by a revolution of the workers or proletariat. He believed that elites dominated society primarily through their direct control over the means of production (i. e. , labor, factories, land) which he referred to as the base of society. 15 But elites also maintained themselves in power through their control over culture, or the superstructure of society. He saw culture as something that elites freely manipulated to mislead average people and encourage them to act against their own interest. He used the term ideology to refer to these forms of culture. To him, ideology operated much like a drug. Those who were under its influence fail to see how they are being exploited. In worst cases, they are so deceived, that they actually 16 undermine their own interests and do things that increase the power of elites while making their own lives even worse. Marx concluded that the only hope for social change was a revolution in which the masses seized control of the base the means of production. Control over the superstructure -over ideology would naturally follow. He saw little possibility that reforms in the super structure could ead to social evolution, or if it could, that -that transformation would be very slow in coming. Elites would never willingly surrender POWER. Power must be taken from them. Little purpose would be served by making minor changes in ideology 17 without first dominating the means of production. Neomarxist Theory: Contemporary incarnation of Marxist theory focusing attention on the super structure. The importance that Neomarxists attach to the super structure has created a fundamental division within Marxism. Many neomaxists assume that useful change can begin with peaceful, ideological reform rather than violent revolution in which he working class seizes control of the means of production. 18 Some neomarxists have developed critiques that call for radically transforming the superstructure while others call for modest reforms. Tensions have arisen among scholars who base their work on Marxs ideas over the value of the work being done by 19 the various neomarxist schools. Textual Analysis and Literary Criticism: Modern european cultural studies theories have a second, very different source a tradition of humanist criticism of religious and literary texts that is referred to hermeneutics. Hermeneutics: the interpretation f texts to identify their actual or real meaning. 20 -humanists who worked to identify and preserve what came to be known as the literary canon a body of the great literature. The literary canon was part of what was referred to as high culture, a set of cultural artifacts including music, art, literature, and poetry that humanists Judged to have the highest value. 1 the level of culture to enable even more people to become humane and civilized. Over the years, many different methods for analyzing written texts have emerged from hermeneutics. They share a common purpose: to criticize old and new cultural ractices so that those most deserving of attention can be identified and explained and the less deserving can be dismissed. This task can be compared with that of movie critics who tell us which films are good or bad and assist us in appreciating or avoiding them. The primary difference is that movie critics are typically not committed to promoting higher 22 cultural values; they only want to explain which movies we are likely to find entertaining. THE FRANKFURT SCHOOL One early prominent school of neo-marxist theory developed during the 1930s at the University of Frankfurt and became known as the Frankfurt School. 3 Two of the most prominent individuals associated with the school were Max Horkheimer, its long time head, and Theodor Adorno, a prolific and cogent theorist. Horheimer and Adorno were openly skeptical that high culture could or should be communicated through mass media. Adorno argued that radio broadcasts or records couldnt begin to adequately reproduce the sound of a live symphony orchestra. He ridiculed the reproduction of great art in 24 magazines or the reprinting of great novels in condensed, serialized form. He claimed that mass media reproductions of high culture were inferior and diverted eople from seeking out (and paying for) the real thing if bad substitutes for high culture were readily available, he believed too many people would settle for them and fail to support better forms of culture. The Frankfurt School has been criticized along with other forms of traditional humanism for being too elitist and paternalistic. By rejecting the possibility of using media to disseminate 25 high culture, most ot the population was ettectively denied access to it Many ot the schools criticisms of media paralleled those of mass society theory and had the same limitations. The Frankfurt School eventually had a direct impact on American social research because the rise of the Nazis forced its Jewish members into exile. 26 During the period of exile, however, Frankfurt School Theorists remained prodductive. They devoted considerable effort, for example, to the critical analysis of Nazi culture and the way it undermined and perverted high culture. In their view, Nazism grounded on a phony, artificially constructed folk culture that had been cynically created and manipulated by Hitler and his propagandists. 27 Nazism helped them envision the Germany they longed to see a unified, proud ation with a long history of achievement and a glorious future. As they rose to power, the Nazis replaced high culture with their pseudofolk culture and discredited important forms of high culture, especially those created by Jews. 8 DEVELOPMENT OF NEOMARXIST THEORY IN BRITAIN: Dunng the 1960s and 1970s , two important schools of neomarxist theory emerged in Great Britain. British Cultural studies and political economy theory. British cultural studies combines neomarxist theory with ideas and research methods derived from diverse sources including literary criticism, linguistics, anthropology, and history. This theory has attempted to trace historic elite domination over culture, to criticize the 29 social consequence of this domination and to demonstrate how it continues to be exercised over specific minority groups or subcultures. British cultural studies criticizes and contrasts elite notions of culture, including high culture, with popular, every day forms practiced by minorities. The superiority of all forms of elite culture including high culture is challenged and compared with useful, valuable forms of popular culture. Hermeneutic attention is shifted from the study of elite cultural rtifacts to the study of minority grouped Lived culture. 30 Graham Murdock(1989) traced the rise of British cultural studies during the 1950s and 1960s. Most important theorists came from the lower social classes that were the focus of the movies. The British cultural studies critique of high culture and ideology was an explicit rejection of what its proponents saw as alien forms of culture imposed on minorities. They defended indigenous forms of popular culture as legitimate expressions of minority groups/ A dominant early theorist was Raymond Williams, a literary scholar who achieved 31 Notoriety with his reappraisals of cultural development in England. Williams ideas were viewd with suspicion and skepticism by many of his colleagues at Cambridge University. Toward the end of 1960s and into the 1970s, Williams turned his attention to mass media. He was more broadly concerned with issues of cultural change and development as well as elite domination ot culture. 3 repackaged as popular, mass media content. If there were to be genuine progress, he felt, it would have to come through significant reform of social institutions. The first important school of cultural studies theorists was formed at the University of Birmingham, during the 1960s and was led by Stuart Hall. Hall (1982) was especially influential in directing several analyses of mass media that directly challenge limited effects notions and in introducing innovative alternatives. Building on ideas developed by Jurgen Habermas(1971 , 1989) and Williams, Hall argued that mass media liberal -democracies can be best understood as a pluralistic public forum in which various forces struggle to shape popular notions about social reality. Pluralistic Public Forum: In critical theory, the idea that media provide a place where the power of dominant lite can be challenged. British Cultural Studies: Strengths: 1 . Asserts value of popular culture 2. Empowers Common Man 34 3. Empowers minorities and values their culture. 4. Stresses cultural pluralism and egalitarianism. Weaknesses: 1. Is too political; call to action is to subjective 2. Typically lacks scientific verification; is based on subjective observation. 3. When subjected to scientific verification, often employs innovative but controversial research methods. 35 Unlike traditional Marxists, Hall did not argue that elites can maintain complete control over this forum. In his view, elites dont need that power to advance their interests. The culture expressed in this forum is not a mere superficial reflection of the superstructure but is instead a dynamic creation of opposing groups.

Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Strengths In The Weight Bearing Ankles Of Young Women Essays

Strengths In The Weight Bearing Ankles Of Young Women Ottaviani, Robert A. (2001) Inversion and Eversion Strengths in the Weight bearing Ankles of Young Women. American Journal of Sports Medicine. Ankle injuries rank as the most common injury in athletics today, and compared to men, women basketball players are 25 % to 60% more susceptible to spraining their ankles. The article began by hypothesizing that this rate is so high in women, because ankle-strength is due to an inversion-eversion muscle strength ratio that is associated with ankle injuries. And past experiments have proven that women, on average, have less muscle strength at the ankle than men. It was stated that this experiment was conducted for three reasons; Nonweight bearing studies tend to underestimate inversion and eversion strengths, no studies of inversion or eversion strengths have been reported in womens ankles bearing full body weight, and there are no sex comparisons of inversion and eversion strength in the ankle. Also, they wanted to see if there was a relation between ankle strength and shoe type. The experimenters tested the strength in the degree of the inward and outward motion of the ankle, and i f shoe height would affect ankle strength development. They took twenty young women that were relatively the same height and weight and normally wore a size 8 shoe. The women were then scaled from 0 to10, based on self-reported habitual physical activity. Zero denoted inactivity and ten denoted sports at the Division I collegiate level. The data shows that the womens active range was measured with a goniometer. Their ankle strength in dorsiflexion-plantarflexion and inversion-eversion was tested by using an isokenetic dyanometer, and other strength tests. The results showed that both shoe height and ankle plantar flexion did not affect eversion movement development. Which meant that eversion strength was not affected by shoe type. This data was then compared to another experiment that used the same methods but was tested on males and found that there are no significant sex differences, and found that in young healthy adults that ankle strength is proportional to body size. When I went over all the information in the article, I found that the experiment was conducted very well, and that the results found are dependable. For example, the control group was constant, and the variables were defined to what the experimenters were looking for, such as the degree of dorsiflexion in the ankle. Also, the experimenters found women that have not had an ankle injury for prior to six months before the experiment. Therefore, they can cut down on any factors that can alter the results of their testing. I found only one problem with the experiment. The volunteers had to report their own habits of physical activity. I believe this is a problem, because the experiment depends on if the volunteers tell the truth. This article is relevant to the field of athletic training because it has to do with the effects of flexion and muscle strength to perform an activity. An athletic trainer must know what his/her athletes are susceptible to when the athletes are playing a sport. If a certain athlete has sprained his/ her ankle before then the athletic trainer must keep a watchful eye because that athlete would be more prone to injuring his self/ herself again. Also, if a basketball player is wear the wrong kind of shoes it causes stress on the lateral ligament of the ankle that results in inversion of the foot and a sprained ankle. So the athletic trainer must be aware of what is the cause and result of ankle injuries. I chose this article because I used to play basketball in high school and sprained my ankle really bad, because I had weak ankles. I ended up with a second-degree sprain that took forever to recover from. And when I did, my balance was off and I was uncoordinated. So I thought this article would help me understand how that happened to me, and what could have cause it. Sports and Games